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The symptoms and treatment of cytomegalovirus in adults

Cytomegalovirus – pathogen belonging to the family of herpes viruses, can affect any tissues and organs. The essence of the process lies in the title – cells to defeat the virus greatly increase its size (giant cells).

The clinical picture and consequences of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection will depend on the immune status of the patient.

The disease may be asymptomatic for many years, and can manifest itself in the form of a light mononucleotides syndrome or cause the development of severe systemic infections, accompanied by serious damage to the liver, lungs, kidneys and other organs.

Pathways of CMV infection in the body

Cytomegalovirus is among the highly contagious infections does not apply. To transfer him from the carrier to a healthy person requires a long and numerous contacts.

The external environment the virus is along with the bodily fluids of an infected person (saliva, urine, semen, feces, breast milk, vaginal secretions).

There are three main ways of transmission of cytomegalovirus:

  • sexual;
  • food;
  • airborne.

Newborn infected from their mothers during breastfeeding. Probably in addition, infection during pregnancy and through blood transfusion (donor blood for the presence of this virus in Russia is not checked).

You should know that people contracted once, for life remains a carrier of the infection.


When the virus enters the body, the immune system begins the production of specific lymphocytic cells and antibodies, which contributes to suppression of the activity of the pathogen. Symptoms of cytomegalovirus infection are manifested only when the immune system is suppressed. It can happen under certain conditions of the body characterized by a pathological or physiological low immunity, namely:

  • in case of cancer pathologies;
  • after bone marrow transplantation or transplantation of various organs;
  • with the defeat of the immune and lymphatic system in various diseases;
  • during pregnancy;
  • in neonates, especially premature.

Symptoms of the presence of the virus in the body can manifest itself in different ways, thus there are several variants of the disease depending on the clinical picture.

People with a strong immune system primary infection can manifest as mononucleotides syndrome. The incubation period for CMV is usually 20-60 days, and the duration of illness 2-6 weeks.

The symptoms in this case, there arethe following:

  • swollen lymph nodes;
  • weakness;
  • fever;
  • pain in the muscles.

If the immune system is working correctly, in response to the infection develop antibodies and the disease ends with self-healing. This person remains a carrier of the infection, and the isolation of the virus into the external environment continues for many years after recovery.

Infected with a weakened immune system there is a generalization of infection. While this can affect the retina and pancreas, liver, lungs, kidneys. The disease is acute and has dire consequences. Symptoms can resemble the symptoms of pneumonia and ulcers. May get a skin rash, swollen lymph nodes and salivary glands. For patients suffering from HIV-infection, penetration of cytomegalovirus in the body is often the cause of death.

If fetal infection has occurred in the womb after 12 weeks, the child usually develops a congenital cytomegalovirus – a severe pathology characterized by the following symptoms:

  • the increase in size of the liver, spleen, and kidneys;
  • inflammation of the lungs;
  • impaired hearing and vision;
  • delayed psychomotor development and development of the teeth.

Drugs for the treatment of

The presence of virus in the blood and the manifestation of it as mononucleotides syndrome in adult patients special treatment is not required. It is sufficient to use the same drugs to relieve the state, who are appointed to treat the common cold.

Adults with weakened immune systems without treatment is not enough. The range of drugs will be chosen by the doctor individually, depending on the clinical picture and results of analyses. Treatment is aimed at destruction of the virus and the activation of protective forces of an organism.

To suppress the infection prescribe a variety of antiviral medications (Panavir, ganciclovir, foscarnet, valganciclovir). It should be remembered that these drugs have a high toxicity, so taking them should strictly adhere to doctor's recommendations. To maintain and enhance immune function assigned to different immunomodulators.