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How is cytomegalovirus infection

The prevalence of infection in the population of CMV, like other Herpes-family, reaches 80%. While this figure in developing countries is almost twice higher than in developed countries. However, even if antibodies to CMV in humans is not defined, there is no guarantee that he is not infected.

Most often, the virus causes no symptoms and the infection have been completely unnoticed. The disease occurs only in the case when the immune defenses are weak or not yet formed, as in newborns.

How do you get cytomegalovirus

On ways of transmission and ways of prevention it is important to know immunocompromised patients with cancer and immunodeficiencies, for which acute cytomegalovirus infection threatens severe complications. Also the virus often bears serious consequences in the case of acute infection of women during pregnancy or the newborn child during childbirth and after.

Most infected individuals remain asymptomatic for cytomegalovirus infection even approximately do not realize in what way and when they were infected. With adequate immunity, the virus causes a maximum SARS in the primary ingested.

Clearly figure out the time and method of transfer is possible only with a low immune system when the infection appears bright signs that appear not earlier 3-12 weeks after infection, which corresponds to the incubation period of CMV.

Transmission of cytomegalovirus determined by the environments in the infected organism, in which it is contained. It is known that this intracellular parasite is present in blood, saliva, urine, semen, mucous discharge, cervical, breast milk and tissues of internal organs in a generalized flow. Accordingly, in each of these environments the virus can get to a new host.

Because CMV dies quickly in the environment, to infect the contact should be close enough.


The presence of CMV in saliva determines the easiest and the main route of infection – airborne. Even if the virus is not transmitted during regular conversation, it easily catch by kissing, shared utensils or toothbrush. And the presence of genital discharge and the urine does not exclude the transmission via towels or toilet, i.e., by contact-household. During unprotected intimate relationships, the probability of contamination reaches a maximum.

The contents of cytomegalovirus in the blood makes possible his transmission by transfusion, if the donor is not enough surveyed. Given that transfusions are required, as a rule, weakened patients, they develop acute salivary gland disease.

The virus is transmitted and in organ transplants(kidney, liver, heart). Organ transplantation is accompanied by the administration of drugs, which artificially reduces the immunity of the recipient in order to avoid rejection. And the presence of CMV in the transplanted organ due to low immunity usually causes acute symptoms of infection.

Vertical transmission

Another method of infection is vertical (to the child from mom). The fetus can be affected during pregnancy in any trimester and during birth. The sooner occurs in utero infection, the worse the prognosis, because the vital organs at this time just beginning to take shape.

If the virus is transmitted to the fetus in the first trimester, it causes fatal damage to the nervous system. Also asymptomatic carriers of cytomegalovirus Mama does not bear any danger to her baby.

The risk to the fetus occurs only when the mother during pregnancy is confronted with a CMV infection for the first time, and in case of exacerbation of chronic cytomegalovirus. If she had not yet formed for the time of delivery of antibodies to cytomegalovirus, to transmit it to the baby it can, and with milk after childbirth. If there is such a risk of the child being transferred to the food mixture.