Gonorrhea (the clap) symptoms, signs, causes, how to treat the disease
Most countries try to limit the spread of gonorrhea. But, unfortunately, the pathogen is already hard enough to take root and spread, so that the question of its complete disappearance is not.
By itself, the gonorrhea will not be a big danger to life. This is due to the low adaptability of the pathogen to living outside the urogenital tract. He dies quickly in the environment, which restricts its distribution.
The main danger for human life are complications of gonorrhea, which can be very diverse. Their occurrence is due to the associated immunodeficiency States, and a long neglect of infection.
Causes of gonorrhea
Causes gonorrhea is multifactorial, but the development of pathology is not possible without specific etiologic agent diplococcus bacteria called Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
The main route of transmission during sexual intercourse. Also known cases of infection by the contact route. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae is not able to survive in human blood, hematogenous route is possible only in case of immunodeficiency States.
As mentioned earlier, the appearance of gonorrhea attributed to many reasons. So the development of disease is influenced by common factors such as the reactivity of the organism, the immune system, presence of comorbidities etc.
The mechanism of disease development
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is transmitted through the mucous membrane from an infected person to a healthy one. In the place of transfer form "entrance gate" of the infection, where the pathogen begins to develop.
The maximum increase in the number of gonorrhea occurs in the incubation period when symptoms of inflammation yet. The timing of this period can vary from 3 days to several months. After it starts the clinical stage of gonorrhoea. In this period, the pathogen begins to spread through the surrounding mucous membranes. Most often, the infection is on the ascending, i.e. from the urethra to the bladder.
The clinical picture and signs of gonorrhea
Symptoms of gonorrhea may be "hiding" under the guise of other diseases. In the early clinical stages of patients report pain in the abdomen and in the genital area. The symptom of pain increases during voiding and physical exercise.
Although gonorrhea normal can't get into the blood, but the toxins can. Thesetoxic substances produces General intoxication syndrome – headache, General malaise, decreased performance, increased body temperature.
It should be noted that during acute gonorrhoea is most frequently observed small increase in temperature to 37.5 degrees. General and local symptoms may not appear on a background of reception of antibiotics because of the treatment of other infections.
During the progression of the disease, patients start to notice pus from the genitals. This symptom is specific for gonorrhea, which makes it easier to diagnose.
The first signs of gonorrhea should not be ignored, when they occur, immediately consult a doctor and undergo treatment.
In this case, the great diagnostic importance of laboratory methods of research. The first step is to conduct a General analysis of blood and stool, coprogram.
In addition, the important method of diagnosis is a bacterial sowing discharge from the urethra. Treatment of gonorrhoea depends on this procedure, because the background of growing crops is carried out antibiogram. It is possible to establish the sensitivity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to various antibiotics and to prescribe specific treatment.
Complications and dangers of gonorrhoea
For prevention of possible complications you need to go to the doctors who know how to cure gonorrhea without consequences for health. Is to distinguish between General and local complications. Let us first consider the General. These include pericarditis, endocarditis, meningitis, encephalitis.
A more dangerous scenario – diplokokkov sepsis. It is formed in case of prolonged absence of treatment or the presence of immune abnormalities and is characterized by the emergence of a large number of bacteria of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the blood. This state is known for its great lethality, after all, leads to multiorgan failure and ultimately death.
Local complications in men include: cystitis, pyelonephritis, proctitis, abscess, deferentia, epididymitis, orchitis. Some of the above complications lead to kidney failure, while others – to the loss of reproductive potential.
Local effects in women include cystitis, pyelonephritis, proctitis, paraproctitis, vaginitis, colpitis,inflammation of the appendages. They can also lead to the development of infectious pyelonephritis and loss of the ability of conception.
It is also worth noting that a woman during pregnancy can pass the infection to the baby. And because of the passage of the placental barrier treated by certain antibiotics during pregnancy is contraindicated.
How to treat gonorrhea
Treatment of infection depends on the results of the performed antibiogram. Most often it is carried out by means of antibiotics cephalosporin – Ceftriaxone, cefepime, set. Treatment scheme of the second order are the drugs of the fluoroquinolone is levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin.
Recent clinical studies gave the answer to the question, whether gonorrhoea is treated by a combination of different groups of antibiotics, which allowed us to combine these drugs during treatment.
As already mentioned, pregnant women can't take medication groups cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. In this case it is reasonable to prescribe drugs of macrolides – erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin. These antibiotics do not pass through the placental barrier that protects the fetus from exposure to toxic substances.
How many treated the disease
Each certified doctor knows how to treat gonorrhea in stationary conditions. The rate of complete cure of the patient depends on the chosen antibiotic and neglect process. In the case of acute gonorrhea antibiotic therapy courses lasts for 10 to 14 days for several months.
Completely cured gonorrhea is considered if signs of infection do not appear for more than 2 months and not found by laboratory studies of blood.
However, even a complete cure does not preclude re-infection. Due to the fact that the immune system develops immunity to this type of pathogen only for a while. After this period, possible re-invasion of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Deciding how to treat gonorrhea, the researchers came to the conclusion that antibiotics alone are insufficient, and it was decided to add to the basic therapy of probiotics and multivitamin preparations.