How much time and how to make a smear for gonorrhea in men and women
Methods diagnostics gonorrhea
The key methods used in the diagnosis of this disease, and bacteriological. They include bacterioscopy (smear for gonorrhea under a microscope) and culture (seeding the bacterial flora on the nutrient medium).
For examination a swab is taken from the body in which there are signs of gonococcal inflammation. Biological material (mucus, pus) is applied on a glass slide and painted with a special compound. The physician examines under the microscope, stained preparation to detect in it the causative agents of gonorrhea.
Gonococci are poorly preserved outside the human body. Why is the important question of how much time passes between the time of taking the smear and the beginning of the study. Ideally, this interval should not превышать15 minutes.
Gonococci appear fairly typical. Upon detection of gonococcal flora in the smear in the case where the person has the typical clinical picture of the disease, the diagnosis of gonorrhea is confirmed.
Bacterioscopy – good, fast and cheap diagnostic method with a simple interpretation. However, for various reasons, the gonococci can not see. Therefore, the absence of gonococci in a smear does not rule out gonorrhea.
Culture method most often used in parallel with microscopy. Its essence is that taken from the urethra or other organs of excretion are sown, i.e. are put on a special nutrient medium.
In this environment, within the required time (usually weeks) of the growing colony of microorganisms. The nutrient medium contains all necessary substances for the development of this type of microbial flora. In the thermostat, where the culture of bacteria is supported by an appropriate temperature regime.
After colonies were formed, their properties (form, color, and other characteristics) to determine which bacterial body formed.
This method also allows to determine the sensitivity of gonococci to antibiotics.
Culture – precision method for diagnosis of gonococcal infection. Its disadvantage is the duration of the execution (analysis done about a week).
Where you take a swab for gonorrhea
A swab is taken from the bodiessuspected gonococcal infection. Both men and women it could be the urethra, oropharynx, rectum, conjunctiva of the eye. Smear for gonorrhea in women in addition to these anatomical areas can be taken from the vagina and cervix.
If a man complains of the classic symptoms of gonococcal infections, i.e., discharge from the urethra, the material for examination should be taken from the urethra. Classic for gonorrhea in women in most cases is manifested by urethritis, colpitis (inflammation of vagina) and cervicitis (inflammation of cervix). Therefore, smear of the bacterial flora taken from the urethra, vagina and cervix.
The technique of taking a smear for gonorrhea in men and women
A universal rule for women and men obtaining samples for bacteriological analysis must be performed before administration of antibiotic.
Before going to the lab required a careful toilet of the penis (wash with soap). Before taking a smear need 2-3 hours to refrain from urination. Directly in the laboratory the head of the penis is wiped with a sterile cloth.
Sampling analysis for gonococcal flora is done with a special probe-pad. The technique of taking a smear for gonorrhea in men simple. If from the urethra liberally pus, then enter the swab deep into the urethra often unnecessary. In the case of chronic gonorrhoea when the discharge is scanty and inconspicuous, a tampon is introduced into the urethra by 3 cm and rotated there for 10 seconds. The procedure is not so painful, how uncomfortable, is easily tolerated by all patients.
The preparation of the study in women is similar to training for men. The necessary toilet of the urinary organs, and from urinating for 2-3 hours.
Sampling of biological material from a swab that is inserted into the urethra and/or vagina and the area of the cervix.
The decoding results of the survey
Interpreting the results of bacteriological examination is pretty simple. The results of the examination, the doctor writes: detected (not detected) gonococci. Alternatively, the conclusion can be said, revealed gram-negative diplococci, which means the same thing. Gram-negative diplococci is a descriptive characterization of the pathogens of gonorrhea.
Conclusion according to the results of a cultural study contains information about what a microbe was identified, the quantity (massive growth) and what antibiotics the infectious pathogen sensitive.