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How to diagnose (identify) the gonorrhea blood test, PCR, methods of provocation

Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection of genitourinary tract.

Pathogen and mechanism of infection

Bad gonococcus persists in the environment outside the human body. The temperature range in which it can exist: 18-56 degrees. The sun's rays, drying effect on the bacterium disastrous.

Gonococcal infection affects the mucous membranes. It can develop in the genitourinary tract, rectum, tonsils, nasopharynx, conjunctiva of the eyes.

Gonorrhea is transmitted primarily through sexual contact. It is also possible infection of a child in childbirth from sick mother. Occasionally the girls recorded cases of domestic transmission of the disease via toilet.

The incubation period usually ranges from 2 to 14 days.

The symptoms of the disease in men

The main symptom of acute gonorrhea in men include purulent discharge from the urethra (the urethra). The allocation is accompanied by burning and pain when urinating. Sick men say the sticking together of the meatus in the morning.

Sometimes at the end of urination appears a drop of blood (if you spread the rear section of the urethra and bladder). If the inflammation goes on the appendage of the testis, there is pain in the scrotum and swelling.

In chronic indolent gonorrhea in men may not be almost any complaints. Discharge from the urethra in chronic scarce (a single drop). Gradually develop sexual dysfunction (erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation).

Symptomatic manifestations in women

The main symptoms of acute form of the disease in women include vaginal discharge, pain during intercourse, painful urination, of varying intensity pain in the lower abdomen.

Gonococcal infection in women in addition the urinary tract is almost always captures the cervix.

Disease in women often occurs in abortive form. About 50% of patients do not show active complaints.

What tests need to pass the examination for gonorrhea

Diagnosis of this infection is based on laboratory studies. This is mainly due to the fact that the clinical picture of gonococcal infections non-specific. Pain and discharge from the urinary tracts in men and women can be when a large number of various diseases.

Key methods of laboratory diagnosis of gonorrhea, i.e., direct tests for gonorrhea are microbiological studies.

Microbiological methods

Microbiological methods aimed at identifying and determining the type of the pathogen.Distinguish between direct microscopic and culture method.

Bacterioscopy is the study of a special way of stained smears under the microscope for the presence of bacteria. For examination is taken smear-scraping of the urethra or other organ affected by inflammation. Bacterioscopic study is widely used around the world. Its advantages are rapidity, low cost and high reliability. If the examination revealed the gonococcus, further diagnostic measures are usually not needed.

Unfortunately, to identify the gonococci in a smear is not always possible. The absence of gonococci in the smear study does not allow to exclude the diagnosis "gonorrhea".

The second method used to detect Neisseria gonorrhoeae, is culture. Its meaning is that typed in the source of the disease biological material (discharge from the urethra or vagina) is placed in a special media for growing colonies of bacteria. In appearance of the formed colonies (cultures) you can tell exactly what organisms made them.

Culture method is precise, relatively cheap, but takes time to grow cultures of gonorrhea (up to 7 days) and special laboratory conditions. Another advantage of the method is the possibility to determine the sensitivity of gonococci to various antibiotics.

In some cases, microbiological testing is not enough to clarify the situation. Then you have to resort to a molecular-genetic methods of determining the causative agent of gonococcal infection. These include PCR and LCR.

The role and LCR PCR in laboratory diagnosis of gonorrhea

диагностика гонореиPCR is polymerase chain reaction. LCR – abbreviation ligases chain reaction. Both methods aimed at identifying the genetic material of gonococci in the secretions from the urethra or other biological fluids.

LCR and PCR have high sensitivity and are done quickly. The problem is the high cost of research. LCR besides difficult due to the fact that it is done in a small number of laboratories. PCR is more widely distributed.

The reaction of Bordet-Gangou – blood

The reaction of Bordet-Gangou refers to serological methods. The word "sero" comes from the word "serum" serum.

For analysis is taken from the patient's blood serum. The study determined the presence in the blood stream of human antibodies to the causative agent of gonorrhea.

The method has several disadvantages, restrictions apply, mainly in chronic gonococcal infections.

What is the provocation of gonorrhea and how it is performed

Provocation in gonorrhea held under latent inflammation when there is suspiciongonococcal infection, but the gonococci were not identified in conventional research. Provocation called action aimed at the output of gonococci from the urinary tract into the lumen of the organs, where the causative agent of gonorrhea is possible to identify bakteriostaticeski or culturally.

To provoke the "exit" gonococci can be chemical, thermal, biological way. For example, when using the chemical method the mucous membrane of the urethra is smeared with silver nitrate. The day after provocation, as well as the second and the third day takes a swab from the urethra for the study of the presence of the pathogen.

Needless to say, the provocation of gonorrhea is considered a method of unproven diagnostic efficacy and do not apply in the United States and Western Europe. In the national manual of dermatology this diagnostic method is also assessed with skepticism.

Other tests

In gonorrhea you need to pass clinical tests of urine and blood. They will not answer the question, whether the sick man with gonorrhea, but it will show the severity of the inflammatory response.

So, in General blood analysis in acute gonococcal infection is usually elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and increased number of leukocytes. In the urine analysis displayed increased numbers of leukocytes, levels of protein and several other inflammatory changes.

To determine the level of the lesion of the urinary tract is dvuhstoronka test. If the infectious process only covers the anterior urethra, the first urine sample is turbid, and the second transparent. If gonococcal inflammation spread to the rear section of the urethra and bladder are both murky urine sample.

How to identify gonococcal infection in the home

There are rapid tests for self-diagnosis of gonorrhea. In appearance they are similar to the test strip to detect pregnancy. These tests can serve for orientation, but for an accurate diagnosis you must see a doctor.