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How does cytomegalovirus infection in women, men and children
The clinical picture of cytomegalovirus infection (CMV) infection depends on the immune status of an infected person. However, cytomegalovirus (CMV) can involve any organ systems and has a tropism for cells of the immune system (leukocyte immunity).
For whom the most dangerous cytomegalovirus
You can select multiple groups, in which clinical manifestations of CMV infection are more common than others.
- children in the prenatal period of life (in utero);
- children from the neonatal period and until approximately 3 years;
- pregnant women;
- persons with an established immunodeficiency on the background of HIV cancer, receiving cytotoxic drugs;
- young people at the beginning of sexuality and a period of high activity (approximately 15-30 years).
It should be noted that even these categories of citizens cytomegalovirus infection is often asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic, causing prolonged evening or persistent low-grade fever (rise in temperature to 37.5 degrees), unmotivated weakness and lethargy.
The main symptoms of CMV
Clinical manifestations of CMV infection can include:
- Damage to the nervous system, often the type of meningitis or meningoencephalitis, polyradiculopathy and neuropathy in adults, especially immunocompromised. In newborns with intrauterine infection can reveal hydrocephalus, microcephaly, calcifications, located around the cerebral ventricles.
- Eye damage (as a rule, the type of retinitis (inflammation in the retina of the eye)).
- Involvement of the gastrointestinal tract: by type enterocolitis, enteritis, as well as the process involved the liver and spleen, which is accompanied by increase in their size, jaundice.
- Pneumonia (inflammation of lung tissue, usually an interstitial). Pneumonia with CMV infection has a protracted, indolent character.
- Hemorrhagic syndrome characterized by a rash on the skin in form of petechiae and possible bleeding.
- A syndrome resembling SARS: in this case, the disease resembles infectious mononucleosis. The patient temperature rises to febrile digits (i.e. above 38 degrees), a fever of wrong – the UPS and downs in temperature have no laws. There is an increase of lymph nodes, especially the cervical front, catarrhal phenomena can be hyperemia (redness of the oropharynx, tonsillitis, scant mucous discharge from the nose. Also, an increase in the parotid (less commonly submandibular) salivary glands in their inflammation (sialadenitis), and symptoms of intoxication – weakness, myalgia, drowsiness and loss of appetite.
- Kidney damage, usually by type of interstitial nephritis, nephroticsyndrome (proteinuria greater than 2.5 g/day., peripheral and Central edema up to anasarca).
- In women, symptoms of vaginitis, cervicitis, endometritis, urethritis. Cytomegalovirus can provoke the appearance of erosions in the vagina, to cause inflammatory reaction with abundant mucous discharge, itching, soreness during intercourse. Urethritis usually sluggish, i.e., possible discomfort and moderate pain and stinging when urinating, which, however, does not compel a woman to seek medical help.
- In men cytomegalovirus infection may occur with symptoms of urethritis, prostatitis. Clinic urethritis and prostatitis caused by cytomegalovirus, also not sharp.
The table below provides information about which categories of the population, certain symptoms are more common.
|The system of bodies subjected to CMV||Symptoms||One more often|
|Nervous system||Meningitis: headaches on the background of fever, photophobia, stiff neck||Persons with immune deficiency, neonates|
|Meningoencephalitis: headache, paresis, paralysis, spasms, cramps||Persons with immune deficiency, neonates|
|Hydrocephalus, microcephaly, periventricular calcification of the brain||Children infected in utero|
|Poliradikulopatiâ: ascending paresis, paralysis, and loss of control of urination and defecation||Persons with immune deficiencies, e.g. HIV|
|Neuropathy: impairment of muscle tone, reduction or absence of reflexes, emergence of pathological reflexes||Infants, persons with immunodeficiency as a complication of milder cytomegalovirus infection in the other categories|
|The organs of sight||Retinitis: blurred vision||Children infected in utero, individuals with HIV|
|Gastrointestinal tract||Enterocolitis, enteritis: abdominal pain diffuse character, frequent liquid stool, pasty or mucus (colitis)||Children up to 3 years, persons with HIV and other immunodeficiencies|
|Hepatitis: nausea, vomiting, heaviness and pain in the right hypochondrium, enlarged liver, symptoms of cholestasis, increased liver enzymes in the blood||All categories of the population|
|The respiratoryupper respiratory tract||Mononucleotides syndrome||Young people who become sexually active or actively leading, as well as children attending kindergartens, and persons of any age after transfusion of blood components, pregnant women|
|Acute respiratory infections: laryngitis, bronchitis, pharyngitis||Children attending kindergartens, pregnant women|
|Respiratory system, lower respiratory system||Pneumonia||Persons with immune deficiency and newborns, and less often children of preschool age|
|All available for lesions of the internal organs||Generalized form||HIV-infected patients with cancer on the background of receiving cytostatic drugs|
|Genitourinary system||Vaginitis and urethritis in women urethritis and prostatitis in men||Young people due to the high sexual activity|
|Cardiovascular system||Myocarditis, endocarditis||HIV-infected patients with cancer on the background of receiving cytostatic drugs|
|The skin and mucous membranes||Petechial rash associated with thrombocytopenia||Any category of the population|
- Cytomegalovirus infection: a textbook for doctors postgraduate education. Baranova I. P., Konnova O. A., Zh. Karimova, O. N. Lesina, M. V. Nikol'skaya, L. I. Krasnova. - Penza, 2008.
- Intrauterine infection: diagnosis, treatment, prevention. A. L. Zaplatnikov, N.. Korovina, M. Y. Korneva, A. V. Cheburkin. The magazine "doctor", 08, 2005.
- Cytomegalovirus infection in newborns: diagnosis and treatment. N. And. Kudashov. The magazine "doctor", 03, 2006.