What is dangerous cytomegalovirus infection, and what its consequences and complications
Ignorance is due to the latent course of the disease. From the first symptoms, similar to SARS, to the subsequent severe chronic diseases of all organs and systems of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains unrecognized.
About the virus
According to the structure closer to him all viruses:
- Epstein-Barr (causative agent of infectious mononucleosis);
- herpes first and second type;
Passed both household and sexually, in utero and at birth, during medical and cosmetic procedures.
For whom the threat of CMV
With a good immunity to the virus in the body does not manifest itself. But serious failures in the protection system can lead to its activation. The consequence of the spread of the virus becomes systemic failure of organs.
At risk may be one, as the decrease in immunity are sometimes called trivial by stress or vitamin deficiency.
Special risk of CMV infection is to:
- pregnant women;
- infants up to 3 months.
- people who have had an organ transplant;
- patients with autoimmune and cancer diseases;
- the elderly.
Children, the elderly and HIV-patients become a target for the virus because of a weak immune system. After transplantations and in the treatment of several diseases, drugs used to depression of protective forces of an organism creates favorable conditions for virus attacks.
As for pregnant women, the danger lurking in the fetus: infection with CMV in the first trimester of pregnancy is the main cause of birth defects and subsequent disability.
The effects of contamination.
In the human cell, the virus embeds its DNA, which leads to disruption in her energy metabolism, a sharp increase in size and loss of ability to divide. Cytomegalovirus particularly vulnerable cells of the salivary glands, neurons, leukocytes, endothelial cells of blood vessels and renal tubules.
From the localization of CMV depends on the manifestations of the disease and the nature of the complications.
This can be a harmless cold, hepatitis, enterocolitis, inflammation of the urogenital system, deafness, blindness, dementia, immunodeficiency or inadequate protective reactions (rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus).
The first "acquaintance" with the infection causes fever, tenderness of the salivary glands, weakness. Re-infectionor reactivation of latent virus can affect any organ and accompanied by inflammation.
Depending on the clinical manifestations distinguish between congenital and acquired cytomegalovirus, occurring in latent, acute mononucleosis or generalized forms.
In congenital CMV infection the child is at risk to clear cytomegalovirus syndrome, optic atrophy, deafness, speech disorders and poor intelligence.
Consequence of infection in early pregnancy be intrauterine fetal death or the following defects:
- defects of partitions of heart;
- narrowing of the pulmonary trunk;
- anomalies in the structure of the kidneys;
- hypoplasia of the lungs;
- micro - and macrogyria;
If the mother is infected in the later period, there is a high probability of development a baby has jaundice, anemia, pneumonia, colitis and enteritis, nephritis, polycystic pancreas, hydrocephaly, and meningoencephalitis.
Complications of cytomegalovirus infection
Acute and generalized form of CMV infection lead to serious organ damage. As recent research suggests that even latent course of the disease increases the risk of cancer.
In 2013, the Arthur G. James of the Ohio state University proved that cytomegalovirus greatly accelerates the development and progression of glioblastoma – a deadly form of brain cancer. It inhibits genes that cause the death of malignant cells.
A year earlier in Australia was found a link between the incidence of breast cancer and high levels of antibodies to cytomegalovirus in women over the age of 40 years.
Despite the risk of CMV, there are no funds for prevention and treatment, and the best protection is considered to be good hygiene.