How to identify syphilis in the survey, methods of laboratory and Express diagnostics
Who needs diagnosis
Society wants to protect you from being infected with pale Treponema. But because a number of rapid tests for early diagnosis of syphilis or identify carriers of the infection. The rule became blood sampling for laboratory diagnosis:
- in cases of pregnancy;
- before surgery;
- donors before donating blood or organs for transplantation;
- medical workers, teachers, workers of public catering, etc.;
- from the military;
Laboratory test and clinical examination for syphilis will:
- patients with signs of STD;
- sexual partners and other family members of a person with an established diagnosis of "syphilis";
- babies born to sick mothers;
- anyone diagnosed with another sexually transmitted disease;
- test the effectiveness of a therapeutic method in the treatment;
- anyone screening gave a positive result.
The procedure of detecting infection at a reception at the venereologist
From a conversation with the patient, the doctor explains:
- is there a confirmed diagnosis of "syphilis" in a partner;
- were there any earlier rash on the genitals;
- inflamed lymph nodes;
- had there been any unprotected sex 3-4 weeks ago.
During clinical inspection of the skin, genitals, anus, mucous membranes specialist explains the similarity of the rashes and other skin lesions to those characteristic of syphilis. Thoroughly palpable peripheral lymph nodes to assess the degree of their increase.
Antibodies to the Treponema actually reveal the methods:
- ELISA – ELISA – ELISA (Enzymelynked immunosorbent assay);
- FTA – reaction immunofluorescence REEF (Fluorescent treponemal antibody);
- RW – reaction of binding complement (Wasserman);
- RW treponemal antigen – Rst;
- TPHA – reaction of passive hemagglutination – TPPA (Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay);
- TPI – reaction immobilization pale treponem – RIBT or RIT (Treponema pallidum immobilization test);
- Western Blot – immunoblotting.
Venereologists follow a certain order of serological tests. As the Express-diagnostics is carried out one of the non-treponemal tests. Embrace the low sensitivity in early and late stagesinfection. Therefore, both negative and positive responses at a certain clinical picture should be verified treponemal methods.
In different situations can be observed combination of positive and negative responses. To decipher them will help table.
|Non-treponemal (NTT)||Treponemal (TT)||Interpretation|
|-||-||Examined the patient is healthy and never suffered with syphilis|
|Primary syphilis in the first week of development|
|Primary syphilis patients in 6-12 months after treatment|
|In HIV-infected people in the stage of active syphilis in the phenomena Hass and Hick as a result of delayed seroconversion|
|-||+||In early form of overt syphilis after successful treatment|
|In patients with primary syphilis|
|In secondary syphilis, and the phenomenon of prozone|
|If late untreated syphilis|
|When biologically false positive TT|
|In patients with autoimmune diseases, in cancer and infectious disease patients pregnant|
|In the terminal stage of HIV infection|
|+||-||When biologically false positive serological reactions|
|+||+||In untreated patients with syphilis at any stage of infection|
|In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and other diseases with abnormal or excessive production of antibodies|
Final conclusions does the venereal diseases on the basis of the data set: clinical, histological and laboratory tests.
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