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Ways and means of transmission of syphilis

Syphilis is one of the oldest sexually transmitted diseases. There are several basic means of transmission:

  • sexual (contact);
  • household;
  • vertical.

The pathogen enters the body mainly through the mucous membranes, much less through the skin or blood. This is facilitated by minor injuries of the epithelium, which may even be invisible. The risk of transmission of syphilis with a single contact is 45%, which allows to transfer this infection to a highly contagious sexually transmitted disease.

The way in which syphilis is transmitted through sexual contact

In addition to traditional vaginal contact the disease is transmitted during oral and anal sex without a condom. Moreover, the transmission risk in such relationships is not only not diminished, but on the contrary. This is due to the acidic vaginal environment, which somewhat neutralizes Treponema as they enter. While in the mouth and rectum such protective mechanisms are not.

Is it possible to get infected through saliva and kiss

If the patient has a chancre or secondary syphilides located in the mouth, the disease is easily transmitted through kissing. Likely his transmission and oral sex without protection. It does not matter either phase of the disease (acute, chronic), nor its duration.

The most dangerous patient in the incubation period and period of remission, when no external signs of infection had not.

Moreover, even if the syphilides are located in the mouth, it is rather difficult to notice partner. Thanks to absolute pain, sometimes they are invisible even to the patient. The result of Contracting in this way can not only sexual partners. If the mother syphiloma on the lip kiss for the child, his infection is also possible.

Infected through the saliva of the patient can not only at the kiss. Is the household a transfer method. For example, when using the toothbrush of the patient can be transferred the infection to his mouth with his saliva. Though the pathogen quickly dies outside the human body, but if the brush is left wet after use, it Treponema lives for a few hours. The same applies to utensils of the patient. It should be used only to them and stored separately.

Other routes of transmission in everyday life

In addition to kissing, a toothbrush and detergent factors of transmission in the home are towels, washcloths, underwear and bedding. These items can for some time after use keep selection of live treponemes.

Especially in everyday terms dangerous secondary period of the disease when all the body is covered with a macular or papular rash, each element of which is very contagious. Usually at this timea family member is isolated and treated in hospital.

Does the disease inherited

Despite the fact that running syphilis affects all the internal organs, it does not affect the genetic information. That is, the agent does not change the gene and cannot be inherited. However, if a woman is pregnant, being sick with syphilis, or infected during pregnancy, the child is also vulnerable to infection. This way of transmission is called vertical.

The vertical path includes the penetration of Treponema crosses the placenta and transfer to her child during pregnancy or breast feeding. Most often to carry a child to a woman with a similar diagnosis fails: there's a miscarriage or pregnancy stops.

But in some cases such children are born, then they often observed multiple defects of organs. At the same time newborns are marked pathology of the vision and hearing that ends with blindness and deafness.

Other rare infections

In addition to basic medical practice, and other known route of transmission of syphilis. For example, when contact with blood or smears of patients and treatment procedures, possible contamination of medical personnel. A "professional" syphilis is localized on the hands and manifests itself immediately in the second stage.

It is not excluded the contamination of the patient when visiting the dentist or gynecologist, if the instruments were not sterilized and processed.

Pallidum and is transmitted through blood during transfusions. It is possible, if donor not examined prior to transfusion. Rare, but still likely to get infected when performing surgical procedures use sterile instruments after a patient with syphilis.