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Ways, methods, characteristics and the probability of infection with syphilis

Despite the fact that syphilis is one of the most ancient of infections and ways of infection they have long been studied, it is still quite common. And the reason for this that few people are guided in the external signs of the disease and how infected with syphilis. The prevalence of the disease also caused by the fact that with a strong immunity it has long may not manifest any symptoms.

Contrary to popular belief that syphilis only affects the lower strata of the population can get sick and very wealthy people who are watching health.

The probability of infection

It is known that the condom reduces the risk of Contracting syphilis, but only if the syphilides are localized exclusively on the genitals. That is, the presence of the chancre at the man on the penis or in the vagina, the condom will provide adequate security.

If the lesions are localized on the skin all over the body, as in the secondary period, no contraception will not save. In this case, infection with syphilis occurs by contact, as lesions contain a lot of pale treponemes.

However, infection can not only in the presence of the body of the partner chancre or abundant rash but also in the incubation period when there are no symptoms and external signs.

How can you get syphilis

The main methods of syphilis include:

  • sex (all types of contacts);
  • household;
  • vertical;
  • iatrogenic (medical).

In addition to the classic sexual intercourse between a man and a woman with syphilis can become infected and in non-traditional forms of relationship. So, homosexuals who practice oral and anal intercourse, the prevalence of the disease is even higher. In this case, the syphilides are localized not only on the genitals, but the mouth and the rectum.

Often syphiloma in the mouth may also occur in heterosexual partners if they engage in oral sex without a condom.

Despite the fact that this kind of sex safer for other sexually transmitted infections during oral contact of Treponema can be transmitted with the same probability. If the syphilides are located exclusively in the mouth, they remain invisible to others and may not even bother the patient. Thus, it can transmit the disease by kissing, not knowing about it.

Methods of infection in the home

Although Treponema and unstable outside the human body, it preserves its virulence for some more time on the personal items of the patient.

A particularly high risk of Contracting syphilis when using a towel, washcloth, underwear and toothbrushbrush patient, since in the damp environment, the pathogen lives much longer. Not exclude the transmission of infection and using utensils, so sick it must be personal and thoroughly treated after meals.

In the secondary period, when the risk of transmission by contact is particularly high, the patient is better placed in the hospital to prevent infection with relatives.

Transmission of infection from mother to child

Vertical transmission of infection occurs through the blood vessels of the placenta or umbilical cord. It is less important, any symptoms of the disease in women before pregnancy or she had contracted during child bearing. Although the infection in the later stages the risk to the fetus is minimal, while in the earlier it reaches 70-80%.

Most often, the syphilis of the mother causes fetal death and miscarriage. Moreover, the miscarriage occurs at a fairly late period (5-6 months pregnant), since in this period the placenta is particularly permeable to the spirochaetes. In rare cases, the child is born alive. However, he is often severely premature and has signs of congenital syphilis (papular rashes on the body perioral scars).

Because breastfeeding Treponema can also be transmitted to the child, such children are exclusively fed formula.

Iatrogenic modes of transmission

You can become infected and the doctor, e.g., dentist or gynecologist. This is possible if after taking a patient with syphilis, the tools have not undergone sufficient processing and sterilization. Infection with syphilis occurs in any surgery, if the tool has not passed a full cycle of sterilization.

Probable transmission through blood transfusion if the donor was not checked thoroughly. Doctors themselves can also get infected from patients with syphilis or their biomaterial is taken for analysis, if you do not comply with the safety regulations.

The first signs of infection

Long enough syphilis has no symptoms. So, the incubation period takes about 3 weeks or a month.

Once this is in place of infection (mucosa or skin) appears chancre. But it often goes unnoticed, when placed inside the vagina or urethra. Even if the chancre is available for review on the body, it does not cause pain or itching. And the patient does not give this symptom due importance. Thus, it is still about 2 months may not even know about the infection.

The first clear sign of infection, when patients in most cases come to the doctor, is a rash throughout the body in combination with swollen lymph nodes and fever. These symptoms already meet the secondary periodof the disease the causative agent circulates in the blood.

At the same time on exposed parts of the body there is abundant rash consisting of red spots and a small amount of knots. The spots do not merge, do not peel and are arranged symmetrically. After a while they themselves fade and disappear.

Typically, reliable identification of spirochetes doctor prescribes blood (PB) and takes a smear from the surface of sifrom. Detection in smear Treponema and positive Wassermann reaction are a reliable sign of infection and require urgent therapy.