How to recognize a pathogen of mycoplasmosis, to prevent or cure the disease
At first it may seem that such information has no practical importance. In fact, knowledge about the structure and functioning of pathogens give us the opportunity to avoid infection or to recover from infectious diseases.
If the front of the eyepiece of the microscope will be Mycoplasma (0.15 to 0.20 microns), we see a variety of forms:
- pseudography (pseudomycelia).
Mycoplasma is not a virus or a bacterium in a pure form, the microorganism and the intermediate forms.
Prokaryote Mycoplasma has no cell wall and is fenced off from the outside world thinnest cytoplasmic membrane. This is the small cell formation able to reproduce itself on a nutrient medium.
Mycoplasma are divided in several ways:
- binary division;
It would result in unequal objects, some of them even viable.
When mollicute become pathogens
Research led to the discovery of more than 180 species of microorganisms, class Mollicutes (mollicute). Not all of them are pathogenic. Some are considered saprotrophs, living in soil and hot springs, others are not able to do without higher organisms. They meet symbiotic in plants, insects, fish, reptiles and mammals.
It is dangerous for a person infected with the following types of urogenital Mycoplasma:
- Mycoplasma genitalium;
- Mycoplasma hominis;
- Ureaplasma urealyticum.
These types of mycoplasmas are the causative agents of urogenital mycoplasmosis. Suffer from them also musculoskeletal system, joints.
Prokaryotes requires cholesterol and nutrients obtained from host cells. The waste products of the microbe poison the body and lead to serious diseases.
The factors of pathogenicity of Mycoplasma scientists include:
- The presence of adhesins that provide the attachment of prokaryotes to host cells and protect the mycoplasmas from the action of antigens.
- Exotoxins affect the nervous system of media.
- Endotoxins Mycoplasma – mammalian, can cause blood clots, leukopenia, pulmonary edema.
- Hemolysin – lead to the synthesis of oxidation products (hydrogen peroxide and oxygen).
- Enzymes (neuraminidase, phospholipase A, amino peptidases, proteases) to break the cellmetabolism.
All Mycoplasma are divided into pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic. Pathogenic can live in the mucous membranes of a healthy person and only at lower immunity or presence of adverse factors can cause diseases of the urogenital sphere. The opportunistic include Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma species of hominis.
The degree of pathogenicity of Ureaplasma depends on its concentration in the mucous membranes of the genitourinary tract. The norm is 103-105 CFU/ml (7%). For Mycoplasma species of hominis this figure is much lower – up to 10 CFU/ml from 2 to 15%). The output for the data frame leads to a rapid spread of infection, leading for the infertility, miscarriage, malnutrition of the fetus.
Mycoplasma species genitalium (M. genitalium) is a pathogenic microorganism, i.e. detect it in any quantity in the body is a criterion of the disease.
The main symptoms and clinical forms of urogenital mycoplasmosis
Urogenital Mycoplasma settle on the mucous membranes, and therefore primarily affects the genitourinary organs. Mycoplasmosis find in the course of diagnosis and treatment of the following diseases of unknown etiology:
- cystitis and pyelonephritis;
- pathology of pregnancy and the fetus.
The table shows the indexes of frequency of detection of genital mycoplasmas by PCR
|Disease||M. hominis, %||Ureaplasma spp. %|
|In healthy women||5-20||40-50|
|In bacterial vaginosis||25,7||52|
|In inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs||40||76,5|
|For endometritis||Up to 40||-|
|When cervical pathology||20||56|
|For habitual miscarriage||45||75|
|When negonokokkovi urethritis||30||65|
|In the composition of microbial associations||62||-|
Urethra in men, colonized by Mycoplasma in twotimes less than the vagina of women.
The pathogen is transmitted:
- intrauterine methods.
Household by mycoplasmosis is transmitted.
From the moment of infection until the first complaint is about 2 weeks. Sufferers to experience a burning sensation when urinating, discomfort and pain during intercourse. Observed clear or white discharge in men from the urethra, and in females from the vagina.
Running disease is characterized by pain in the perineum. In women, ascending infection causing lower back pain, lower abdomen.
Laboratory methods for detection of the parasite
In laboratory practice two directions of research samples:
- culture (growing cultures on nutrient media);
- alternative and serology (polymerase chain reaction (PCR), hybridization to rRNA of Mycoplasma, determination of enzyme activity of Mycoplasma).
Mycoplasma are grown in liquid and solid mediums with the addition of a whole set of nutrients, including cholesterol, nucleic acids, serum, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Identify microbes by the appearance of colonies and by staining (Gram's and Romanovsky-Giemsa).
As effective diagnostic methods of Mycoplasma infection have proven to:
- detection of antibodies (IgM and IgG) to the Mycoplasma – ELISA, RIF.
Treatment and prevention
The basis of successful treatment Mycoplasma antibiotics. Depending on the individual patient, the type and location of the pathogen, the doctor chooses from:
Almost prescribe antibiotic therapy for the following schemes:
- "Azithromycin" 1.0 g once or 500 mg the first day, then 250 mg per day for 4 consecutive days;
- "Josamycin" 500 mg three times a day for 10 days;
- "Doxycycline" 100 mg twice a day for 10 days.
To add antibiotics, immunomodulators, multiprobiotics locally and systemically, medications.
To help medications add physical therapy, strengthening the immune system, homeopathy, and folk remedies.
Ways to prevent Mycoplasma is simple:
- timely treatment;
- health care partner.
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