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Description of the results are handed to the causes Mycoplasma genitalium, genitalium (smear, cultures, blood, PCR)

Mycoplasmas are bacteria lacking cell walls that are intracellular parasites that cause with its abundant propagation of various inflammatory processes and diseases.

In the human body, there may be several species of Mycoplasma which cause various diseases: pneumonia (respiratory) to urethritis, prostatitis and other infections of the genitourinary system (urogenital mycoplasmas cause) of men and women.

Today, urogenital mycoplasmosis is one of the leading sexually transmitted diseases. The researchers argue that carriage of this organism varies from 10 to 50 %. While men often identify Mycoplasma genitalium, and in women – causes Mycoplasma genitalium.

In addition to the various diseases of the urogenital tract, these microorganisms can be the cause of infertility, nevynashivanii and even stillbirth. That's why diagnosis of mycoplasmosis today is a very important issue.

What are the tests for detection of Mycoplasma

  • microbiological culture (the cultures,the culture method or biological method) for Mycoplasma;
  • PCR diagnostics;
  • immunofermentnyi (ELISA).

Microscopic method of the stroke is possible, since the bacteria is stained badly and have very small dimensions.

I will discuss all kinds of tests on Mycoplasma in the human body.

The cultures (culture method)

In order to carry out microbiological analysis on bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma, planted biomaterial in liquid or solid nutrient medium. A swab for this study are taken from the cervix, urethra and vagina. It was then placed in a liquid transport medium for delivery to the lab.

It should be noted that DAB for such a study can not be taken during menstruation as it can lead to false-positive results.

An important advantage of cultures is that the method allows to perform quantitative analysis, i.e. to determine the number of mycoplasmas in the human body. So, it is believed that figure to 10 to the 4th power is the carrier, ie, Mycoplasma can remain in the body in such numbers and not to cause clinical manifestations. In this case, antibiotics are not needed.

The number of bacteria in excess of called the indicator gives the physician a basis to suggest the etiological role of these bacteria and the necessity of treatment using antibiotics.

Microbiological cultures for Mycoplasma also allows to determine the sensitivityof microorganisms to antibiotics, which gives the opportunity to choose the right treatment strategy. This issue is considered important, as there exist bacteria with multiple antibiotic resistance.

However, it should be remembered that the disadvantage of this method is not a 100 percent certainty, because under the influence of some factors (e.g. use of antibiotics) Mycoplasma do not grow on nutrient media that may cause a negative result.

It is also believed that with the help of bacterial culture are not determined by all these bacterias are detected only M. hominis, and, for example, Mycoplasma genitalium can not be cultured on nutrient media.

PCR diagnostics

The method is more reliable than the cultures, as it allows to identify the causative agent in 99% of cases. This technique makes it possible to determine the presence of the most dangerous of all species of mycoplasmas – Mycoplasma genitalium. To diagnose Mycoplasma by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), you can use the following types of material:

  • scraping or swab from the mucous membrane of the genital organs;
  • the scrapings from the urethra or the cervical canal;
  • swab of the vagina, the foreskin iliocostal region;
  • sperm;
  • urine;
  • the secret of the prostate.

This technique is most appropriate in the diagnosis of mycoplasmosis, because it implies the isolation of the DNA of the bacteria. That is, if the PCR analysis for Mycoplasma negative, it means that these microorganisms in the body is not identified, and the cause of disease are other factors.

However, this method has its drawbacks. So, it is not possible to carry out quantitative calculation, but only indicates the presence of genetic material.

Today there is the so-called PCR-method of diagnosing in real time, which also allows to count the number of microorganisms in real time, but such a study can be carried out not in all laboratories and it is very expensive.

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

The method is based on detection of antibodies to mycoplasmas, which include different types of immunoglobulins, e.g., IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE, IgD. Serological diagnosis of this disease is not sufficiently accurate since, because of their intracellular location of the bacteria induce a weak immune response.

For example, it is believed that the level of certain antibodies is increased in different periods of the disease. So, IgG is actively produced by the body on 15-20-th day from the moment of infection. IgM in a small amount detectedwhen indolent infection. IgG in small numbers – throughout the disease, rising considerably when re-infected.

This study is now considered not very accurate and therefore it is recommended to use PCR-based diagnosis and culture method. Blood on the Mycoplasma, but rather the blood serum is used as a biomaterial for the study by ELISA.