Signs, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of chronic viral hepatitis In
Epidemiology: as is arising and spreading hepatitis b
This disease is a global challenge for the modern health care system. The infectiousness of the virus is 100 times higher than HIV. The virus lives outside the body for 7 days and dangerous for any man, not to protect yourself with a vaccine. The incubation period lasts from 35 to 100 days (average 75 days). Within 35-60 days after infection the virus can be detected.
A large number of patients in Africa and East Asia: there is a chronic form of this disease suffer 8% of the population. In European countries, the number of carriers of chronic forms of the disease - 1% (fixed 3 million patients). In Russia, the disease ranks tenth in terms of mortality, what makes one talk about the urgency of the epidemic of hepatitis B. About 8 million people suffer from a chronic form of the disease in the Russian Federation.
The disease is parenteral transmission method: isolated domestic, vertical, and sexual transmission mechanisms. Transmitted the virus through different bodily fluid: saliva, urine, semen, menstrual blood, vaginal secretions. Hepatitis b poses a risk to healthcare workers, because infection often occurs during medical diagnostic procedures (in hospitals, dental offices). It is dangerous to use a common razor, scissors, toothbrushes, towels, razor blades. Even a small amount of discharge can lead to contamination of microtrauma of skin: burns, cracks, cuts.
The diagnosis of "chronic hepatitis b" is maintained throughout life, the virus may reappear for many years even in the absence of characteristic features.
Further the condition of the patient depends on the speed of progression of the infection. In 15% of cases possible transition of hepatitis into cirrhosis or primary liver cancer.
For patients with the acute form of the disease is assigned treatment aimed at elimination of toxins. In this case, the liver cells regenerate. Complex treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis b is strictlyindividually. "Interferon", "Lamivudine" and "Adefovir" refers to antiviral drug group alpha. The virus spreads slower when prescribing these drugs. Signs of chronic hepatitis are eliminated from six months to several years. The problem of the invention effective treatment of chronic hepatitis b continues to be characterized by high relevance, because to date, there is no way to prevent liver fibrosis.
Hospitalization is cases in the infectious hospital. Patient nutrition must be complete, from the diet is necessary to exclude smoked, spicy and fried meals. Caution should be taken to preservatives and dyes. Patients should abstain from alcohol, medicines affecting liver function, as well as to normalize the mode of the day.
Prevention and reduce the incidence of
Remember that follow-up of patients with chronic form of hepatitis b is carried out throughout life, so prevention of hepatitis b remains valid.
Prevention is vaccination, then the immune system against the virus is produced at 99%. The vaccine is administered in right forearm at the age of 0, 3 and 6 months (the first injection is performed in the hospital). If vaccination was not carried out at this age, it is recommended to do in 13 years. The effect persists for 22 years. Vaccine is not doing at elevated temperature and if you are allergic to bread and yeast. Emergency vaccination is carried out after contact with an infected person or after a blood transfusion with the hepatitis b virus.
Infectious diseases transmitted through blood and saliva, and require special treatment of the personnel of hospitals and beauty salons, their tools must be sterile, hands protected by gloves. Please note on the sterilization of instruments by the dentist.
With early detection and proper treatment of this ailment does not go into the chronic stage. If you are at risk of hepatitis b, recommend that you undergo laboratory blood.