Hepatitis b and pregnancy: possible problems
Features of hepatitis B
Hepatitis B is a viral disease that most affected the liver. The virus is in liver cells (hepatocytes) and is very resistant to environmental factors. Currently worldwide there are about 350 million carriers of this virus. About half of these people were infected at birth or in early childhood. Newborn children have an imperfect immune system, so the risk of infection during childbirth is very high.
Hepatitis often occurs in the chronic form. For a long time it may not bother the woman. Often the disease is detected incidentally. It is known that during pregnancy all women should be screened for hepatitis B triple. According to statistics, the incidence of acute hepatitis B among pregnant women is 1-2 per 1000 people, and chronic - 5-10 occasions.
How is the infection
In pregnant women hepatitis B virus can enter the body in different ways. Infection is possible following mechanisms:
When combined hepatitis B and pregnancy symptoms can be different. Pregnant women can submit complaints to:
- lack of appetite;
- yellowing of the skin;
- change the color of urine and stool;
- a slight rise in temperature;
- pain in upper quadrant right;
- the feeling of heaviness.
In some women the disease can be hidden. The most dangerous is the chronic form of hepatitis, because if untreated it can lead to liver cancer. Additional symptoms can include rash, joint pain, headache. Acute hepatitis B often ends in recovery. He rarely becomes chronic. During the examination of pregnant women for hepatitis B often reveals enlargement of the liver and spleen. If the pregnancy occurred after the infection, and by the time he developed cirrhosis of the organ, pregnancy is often interrupted because of the possible complications.
The child does not affect the course of disease. The worsening of the disease inpregnancy occurs rarely, it is possible after birth, due to a change in the hormonal status of women. If you have a combination of acute hepatitis B and pregnancy without any complications, children can be born prematurely. If this happens before 37 weeks, they will be premature. In addition, hepatitis can cause babies with low birth weight.
Diagnosis and treatment
To identify pregnant women with acute or chronic hepatitis b (CHB) is required to donate blood for determination of specific antibodies to the virus of hepatitis B. Estimated level of liver enzymes. If the virus is not revealed, the women are encouraged to protect themselves and their unborn child by vaccination. Vaccination is carried out not only during pregnancy but also all children and adults, according to the immunization schedule.
Nevertheless, if chronic hepatitis is detected, the physician must assess the severity of the disease. In mild or average course of the disease, treatment is not required. Such women need constant observation. May be symptomatic therapy. Alpha interferon, pregnant women are not assigned. Can be used analogues of nucleosides ("Lamivudine").
At birth babies always held their vaccination in the first 12 hours.
Can be combined administration of vaccine and immunoglobulin. The next vaccination is done in 1-2 months and six months. Thus, hepatitis B can be transmitted from mother to child. With timely treatment to the doctor, examination and immunization the risk of complications is greatly reduced.