The main genotypes of the hepatitis C virus and their significance in the epidemiology of the disease
- viral hepatitis (A, B, C, D, E, F, G);
- toxic (alcohol, drugs, poisoning with toxic chemicals);
- hepatitis in autoimmune diseases.
General information about the virus
Hepatitis C virus is characterized as a systemic infection with HCV. So as the virus constantly mutates, changing its genetic structure, the body is unable to produce antibodies to it. Against hepatitis C no vaccine is available. In 15-20% of cases the immune system alone to cope with the virus. Hepatitis C (HCV) can cause cirrhosis and liver cancer.
Liver disease are asymptomatic. The pain may be felt in the sheath, which is covered with the liver (increase in size), or in other organs situated around it. The liver itself pain receptors do not exist. The body delivers signals only when the liver is scarring (cirrhosis). The symptoms of the disease manifested in the form of violation of appetite, General weakness, nausea, diarrhea, and sudden weight loss.
In patients with chronic hepatitis C infection are at increased risk of cancer of the liver. Therefore they are recommended to be tested for tumor markers (alpha-fetoprotein) every 6-12 months. With the similar interval it is recommended to undergo ultrasound of the liver.
In some cases, the doctor-hepatologist may prescribe a biopsy of the liver. With the help of a special needle puncture is performed. Through a small puncture is taken for analysis a piece of liver tissue. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia. This analysis allows us to determine the degree of severity of the disease and the presence of concomitant diseases.
To determine the full picture of the disease spend analysis to determine the genotype of the virus (genotyping). Defining genotype, stage of liver inflammation, degree of damage, the amount of fibrosis, the doctor can prescribe the most effective treatment in a particular case.
Clinical management of patients
According to statistics, 5% of infected patients recover. In their body for a long time remain antibodies, but virus RNA in blood to not be identified. What treatment is necessary in a particular case can be determined only by the doctor. Therapy is determined based on the following criteria:
- the stage of the disease;
- the residence time of the virus in the body;
- the genotype of the virus;
- genetic predisposition to vibroabrasive.
If someone from the next of kin diagnosed with cirrhosis, then the patient shouldto conduct a study on the presence of the following markers:
- immunoregulatory proteins;
- factors of fibrogenesis.
In most of the cases used combined therapy. The patient is prescribed a Interferon in combination with Ribavirin. First the drug has immunomodulatory and antiviral effect. Laboratory studies have proven antiviral action of Ribavirin against hepatitis C. This drug is contraindicated:
- persons under 18 years of age;
- pregnant women;
- in the period of breast-feeding;
- persons who have had an organ transplant;
- patients with hyperthyroidism;
- patients with diseases of cardiovascular system, diabetes or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Combined treatment of hepatitis can get rid of the symptoms of the disease in 50% of cases. During treatment with prescribed medications. They enhance the protective functions of the liver, contributing to cell regeneration . The emergence of antivirals new generation ("Boceprevir", "Telaprevir") allowed to increase the number of recovering up to 70-80%.
In hepatitis it is necessary to observe certain rules of nutrition:
- daily drink 1.5-2 liters of water;
- eliminate alcoholic beverages;
- to balance a diet;
- not to starve;
- divide food into small portions for receiving 5-6 times a day;
- to minimize the consumption of sweets;
- every day to eat vegetables and fruits;
- to eliminate fatty, fried, spicy, smoked food, fast food;
- to make in your diet nuts and legumes;
- delete sorrel, fatty fish and meat, cocoa, meat broth, spices.
It is impossible to self-medicate or use folk remedies without consulting your physician.