Methods of laboratory and instrumental diagnosis of hepatitis b, C
Different mode of transmission and clinical course of the disease. An effective vaccine to combat this infection does not yet exist. But prevention and security make everyone can. Passing preventive medical examinations, it would be appropriate to do once a year ultrasound of the liver. After all, this body bears a tremendous burden in the entire body.
The etiology of hepatitis C
Infection occurs directly in contact with biological fluids (blood) of the infected blood of another person. The virus can be transmitted during unprotected sexual intercourse. It is recommended to use contraception (condom) as an effective method of protection from infection.Greater threat of infection with hepatitis C brings addiction. Using a single syringe several persons leads to the inevitable infection. To prevent this kind of spread of the disease is possible if not a rejection of the drug, the individual using a disposable syringe. To get the virus in the human body perhaps during a medical manipulation, if not it has complied with all measures of sterility and security. Such places can become dentistry, blood transfusion centres. Beauty requires sacrifices and a little bit of attention, beauty salons and tattoo studios provide a number of popular services: manicure, pedicure, tattoo, piercing. Beauticians carry out the injection of rejuvenation. All manipulations carried out with human mucosa, cause the risk of Contracting HCC.
It will be useful to ensure that the tool is sterilized, disposable needles, and the package opened in front of client wizard work in disposable gloves. Infection can occur whenchildbirth in case the mother is ill with hepatitis. Newborn gets the virus while passing through the birth canal. This species is only transmitted through blood and mucous of infection by airborne droplets impossible. Shaking hands, use of one utensils, the arms do not bear the risk of the disease. When infected close it is not necessary to avoid contact with him, ethics and attention will bring many benefits in the way of his recovery. In most cases, patients who were diagnosed with the virus, were unaware of the disease, and detection becomes a complete surprise. Laboratory diagnosis of hepatitis C is the only method of reliable diagnosis.
Symptoms of pathology
The main symptom is the feeling of tiredness, drowsiness. Waking up in the morning difficult, the sleep cycle is disturbed. The infected may experience pain in the joints. The temperature increases are insignificant and do not in all cases. The patient may experience nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite. Often the symptoms are similar to signs of flu and SARS. May occur cough, runny nose and sore throat. Yellowing of the skin and mucosa may not be present.
Typically, the yellow, the increase in the volume of the stomach can testify about cirrhosis.
An important symptom is dark urine. When the disease it acquires a brown color. Cal lost because of the violation of passage of bile. The feeling of pain and heaviness in the right side, closer to the ribs is one of the signs of inflammation of the liver.
Diagnosis of hepatitis in a medical institution includes a number of activities.
A blood test. Determines the level of activity of the virus and sets the body's ability to produce antibodies. Biochemical analysis will determine the level of bilirubin, activity of liver enzymes. If analysis confirmed the presence of antibodies to the virus, it is a more sensitive test. Antibodies in the blood are an indicator of infection and stage of disease. Serological studies allow to identify antibodies to antigens. An antigen is a molecule of the virus that joined the cells of the liver. To determine the number of antibodies will allow a modern method of enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). If the markers are positive, then knowing what is the total ratio of antibodies to antigen of the virus, one can judge the stage of development of the disease. GPS have two kind of antibodies G and m are Specified in the tests like IgG and IgM. Markers to phases of the disease:
- acute phase - Anti-HCV core IgM;
- chronic phase - Anti-HCV NS;
- transferred disease - Anti-HCV core IgM;
- possible infection - Anti-HCV IgG.
PCR (polymerase chain reaction, PCR). Used to confirm the presence of HCC in the blood. Liver ultrasound will clearly show at what stagethe disease is. This will tell metrics in the form of options increased on. In addition, ultrasound-controlled biopsy of the liver. Needle biopsy. Is done under anesthesia, the liver removed the tissue and sent for analysis. Histological examination will determine the stage of fibrosis and inflammation of the body. A blood test for tumor markers and ultrasound of the liver are carried out every six months. This required tests for patients with chronic liver disease as in hepatitis With the risk of disease in Oncology promoted. There are patients who are carriers of HCC, in a laboratory study, all indicators indicate the presence of virus in the blood, but the liver was not changed, the tissue is not broken. Diagnosis of hepatitis is only possible in laboratory conditions, the presence of certain symptoms does not constitute grounds for diagnosis, and especially of self-medication.
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2. Podymova S. D. liver Disease.